Life in America in the 18th century was not easy. Colonists, most of whom came from England or whose parents or grandparents came from England, had to contend with harsh winters, unfriendly Indians, foreign flora and fauna, and with the results of wars mostly started and fought 1000 miles away. Many people came to satisfy a need for adventure, some to escape persecution, others were brought here as servants or slaves.
The hardships they faced almost everyday gave them a fierce loyalty to each other, to their colonies, to the land on which they lived. Far from the King, they felt free.The colonists were loyal subjects of the English King, George III. For a time. They fought with the British (they were British, after all) against the French in the French and Indian War (known to the English as the Seven Years War). In 1763, the English won that war, which started in the colonies and expanded to Europe and Asia, and they took much of the French holdings in North America as prizes of war.
In the years to follow, 1763 through 1765, the British Parliament enacted several laws which the colonists disagreed with. The Proclamation of 1763 prevented settlement of the area south of the Appalachians; the Currency Act prohibited the use of paper money for the payment of debt; the Sugar Act placed a tax on goods imported into the colonies, such as sugar, wine, and coffee and provided for tight control on its enforcement; the Quartering Act required colonists to board soldiers upon request. In 1765, a final, pivotal law - the Stamp Act. The Stamp Act placed a direct tax on the colonists themselves, not just on imports. The Act required tax stamps be purchased and affixed to all manner of paper goods, from legal documents to newspapers to playing cards. By itself, the Stamp Act might not have started a revolution, but combined with all the previous acts, it lit a fire.
As a result of the Stamp Act, a Stamp Act Congress was called, and nine of the thirteen colonies sent representatives. They denounced the Act and sent a formal denunciation to the King and the Parliament. The Act was repealed in 1766, but not in direct response to the colonist's pleas - in fact, it was British merchants and exporters who pressured the repeal, based on falling sales from the colonies' boycotts of all taxable items.
Probably because it had not fully comprehended the fury of the colonists over the Stamp Act, the Parliament tried a direct tax on the colonies again in 1767. The Townshend Acts placed duties on many staple imports such as glass, paper, paint, and tea. The colonists rebelled against the tax by once again boycotting the goods. This time, there would be no repeal - the British sent in troops to intimidate the colonies, to induce trade. For years, the soldiers lived in the midst of the colonists, their presence stirring anger and frustration. American politicians, including Benjamin Franklin, called for the repeal of the acts and the return of the troops. Though the Parliament did back off slightly on the economic front, they were determined to maintain the troops.
In 1770, things boiled over in Boston. An unruly mob, some angry that idle British soldiers were taking valuable jobs, confronted a small contingent of soldiers. They attacked the soldiers with snowballs, and the soldiers returned bullets, killing five. The so-called Boston Massacre was seized upon by the revolutionaries who had already established themselves, Samuel Adams among them. Paul Revere struck a famous engraving of the incident. John Adams, who wanted to ensure fairness, defended the soldiers at trial, where most were acquitted. More than half of Boston's population turned out for the funeral procession. And the British withdrew their troops.
In 1773, the Tea Act was enacted. To help finance the East India Company's expensive imperial expansion in India, Parliament eliminated the tax on the Company's tea. Most Americans, by now, were drinking imported Dutch tea, to avoid paying the Townshend tax. The cost of the Company's tea would be cheaper than the Dutch tea, even with the Townshend tax. This gave the colonists a dilemma - pay less for tea and pay the hated tax, or pay more for tea and continue defiance. When a shipment of the Company's tea arrived in Boston, a band of men led by Samuel Adams, attacked the three ships it had arrived on and threw the tea into Boston Harbour. The Boston Tea Party was a turning point.The British Parliament decided to stand firm. They demanded payment for the tea, and the town of Boston refused to pay. The Parliament responded by passing the Coercive Acts (called Intolerable Acts by the colonists) in March, 1774.The Continental Congresses and War
Word of the Intolerable Acts spread quickly. In September, 1774, another inter-colonial meeting was called. Fifty-six delegates from twelve colonies gathered in Philadelphia. The First Continental Congress, as it was later known, drafted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which they sent to King George. At the same time, Canada was invited to join with the Congress and the Continental Association it established. Committees of Safety were established, charged with enforcing the goals of the association, which were primarily the boycott of English goods. One of the last things the Congress did was agree to meet again in May of 1775, to discuss their options, giving the King plenty of time to respond to the Declaration.The intention of the British was not to give up - and they decided to send in the troops. The Americans, many of whom had been a British infantryman at one point in his life, knew that a confrontation was inevitable. They began to train, farmers, peasants, shopkeepers, to be able to pick up their guns to fight. They did not have to wait long to put their practice to use.
In April, 1775, British troops were sent from Boston to find a colonist supply dump in Concord. Paul Revere and Billy Dawes set off from Boston to warn the minutemen - first they stopped in Lexington, where a small group of them waited for the troops. Joined by Samuel Prescott, the three rode on to Concord where the main body of the resistance lay. The three were captured, but Prescott escaped and made his way to Concord. The first shot of the Revolutionary War was fired in Lexington, where the minutemen slowed the British, giving the Concord contingent time to prepare, once warned by Prescott. The troops finally reached Concord, where intense gun battles raged - the British finally pulled back.Less than a month later, the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia as planned. The answer from the King was obvious. The colonists felt they had no choice - war was at hand, and it was a battle they had to win. Many at the Congress still wanted to resolve the issue peacefully, despite the indications given in Concord. The Congress met throughout the spring and summer, conducting national business, such as setting standards for the conduct of trade, establishing currency, and the establishment of foreign diplomats to strike alliances.
The British were not in a conciliatory mood, however, and King George sent 12,000 Hessian mercenaries to North America to suppress the uprising. Skirmishes had continued after Concord, including the taking of Fort Ticonderoga and Crown Point on Lake Champlain and the Battle of Bunker Hill. The patriots of the North were bound and determined to fight, though the Southern delegates were not so sure. John Adams ensured the South would enter into the fray by suggesting a Southerner would lead the American troops - none other than the hero of the French and Indian War, George Washington. With the threat of the Hessians, the thrill of the American victories up to that point, and the outlook of political and economic freedom, the road was laid.
One main obstacle remained. The final decision to declare the colonies independent of Britain. Throughout early 1776, the majority of the Congress was not convinced that independence was the right move. It took a 50-page pamphlet by Pennsylvanian Thomas Paine to change their minds. Written in January, 1776, Common Sense argued forcefully for independence. The pamphlet was widely read throughout the colonies. Its arguments were convincing (as was the threat of 12,000 Hessian troops), and by spring of 1776, independence was on the mind of most Americans, including those in Congress.
In June, 1776, Richard Henry Lee proposed three things: that the colonies declare themselves independent of Britain; that the colonies should join together somehow; and that foreign alliances should be sought out. The committee to look into the question of independence was made up of John Adams, Ben Franklin, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman, and Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson was well regarded as a writer, and was also needed to balance the Northerners on the committee. He was drafted by the other members to write a declaration, which he did despite personal problems with his wife's health and other duties he had in Congress. He presented the declaration to the committee within a few days. The committee forwarded it on to the Congress after some revisions.
On July 2nd, the Congress voted to accept the document, after some editing toned down some particularly caustic paragraphs and struck others completely. On July 4th, 1776, the Declaration of Independence was formally accepted. It was formally signed on August 2, 1776, with some members adding their names after that date. The Declaration was printed and sent out to the colonies and to the troops. A new nation, the "united States of America," was born.
The Declaration of Independence was originally written by Jefferson, but the document as we know it today is not entirely his. The independence committee made a considerable number of revisions to Jefferson's draft. Jefferson forwarded a marked-up copy of his first draft to Franklin (who stayed at home much of the time from the effects of gout), asking for his input following the revision of the rest of the committee. This draft survives today, and is housed in the Library of Congress. Once the committee was satisfied with the declaration, it was sent to the full Congress for approval.For two days, July 2 and 3, the Congress worked on the declaration. It was a harsh attack on the King and on Britain itself. Despite the fervour of revolution, it was thought wise to tone down the rhetoric. Jefferson's first two paragraphs, with their strong and patriotic wording (like "when in the course of human events," and "we hold these truths to be self-evident"), were left mostly untouched. But Jefferson was much too wordy in his listing of the crimes of the King. Though such lists, justifications for the actions about to be taken, were common, they usually had a small number of well-known offences the common folk could recall and wrap their minds around. Jefferson, with a seeming photographic memory of the events of the last decade, listed many small, trivial events and did so at great length. Notably, a long charge concerning the slave trade was struck, and a long attack on the British people was edited back considerably. In all, it is generally agreed that the final, edited version of the Declaration is a much stronger document than Jefferson's drafts.
The Declaration of Independence is divided into three main parts, in a style that was very common in its day. A preamble, a list of grievances or justifications, and finally the point of all that preceded it. The preamble establishes that all men have rights, that the government is established to secure those rights, and if and when such government becomes a hinderance to those rights, it should be abolished - or ties to it broken. It notes that people would rather do some amount of suffering rather than take this extreme step, but that such tolerance is not unlimited. The abuses of the colonies by the King had reached such a point. The time to present the facts to the world was here.
Then are listed almost 30 separate points, the crimes of the King against the people of the colonies, and finally an indictment of the people of Britain, for allowing such injustices to continue. It vows that the new nation has no lasting grudge against the people of Britain, but that it will fight them if need be: "Enemies in War, in Peace Friends."Finally, the climax of the document, its declaration. Buried in verbal flourish, the point can be boiled down to this: "the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States."